Friends of the Cawthra Bush
Greater Mississauga Area
Pages of Special Interest;
Other Table of Contents;
Human & Urban Impacts
Forested & Environmentally Significant areas.
This is the listing of material sent regarding the request for studies, documents etc., that in some way referred to the negative impacts of human urban development on the natural environment. These negative human impacts on an environmentally significant area with a threatened amphibian species (the Jefferson Salamander), was key to our efforts to save the Cawthra Bush but studies do not often focused exactly on that kind of issue, then they are hard to find and get copies of. Our main focus was that a sudden increase in the local population and the ending of the low density and deep lots, replaced with townhouses, would destroy the community that has acted as buffer for the old-growth forest that is the Cawthra Bush. There is a good deal more out there dealing with related subjects and could be used as base material in a study looking at the negative human impacts. So with that in mind this web-page is posted in hopes it can help others.
When going to the Ontario Municipal Board (OMB), the studies and papers that will need to cited and presented will have to have the credibility and standard of something like an academic journal. Knowing this I put a call out for whatever sources people could refer me to, such as studies and papers. The responses were reworded for the following list in case the word appears odd. Once a certain study, paper or academic journal was in hand it would have to reviewed in detail in order to explain why is was included in the material enclosed to the OMB. It has to be put in the context of the issues at that Hearing, to show why it is relative.
Due to time constraints/lack of energy (after more then 10 years of battling the City's efforts to eliminate the Cawthra Bush environmental Significance, who's planning staff were refusing to even answer questions about the development before the OMB), and the fact, many references were delivered to me too late to be used in the actually OMB hearing (for a lay-person even finding a scientific study is a journey in its self, much less to understand it), I could not even list why certain items were enclosed to the OMB. A request for more time was made and it was refused. Being way past burn-out and trying to get people involved in the community to come out to the many meetings before the OMB Hearing, does this.
Most of the items listed were not reviewed or even found but are listed as they could be useful to someone else. This list is far from a complete on the subjects noted but does provide a starting point and some understanding in how to search further.
Listing of subsections;
benefits to the surrounding human community of a forest;
1). Wording that can be used when searching the Internet;
In the last 12 years, there have been at least 1,448 articles published on the topics of "fragmentation and birds", 5,483 on "fragmentation and mammals", 491 on "fragmentation and amphibians", 155 on "fragmentation and reptiles", 8,002 on "fragmentation and plants". Ontario bird studies at least 17 published since 1990. Ontario mammal studies at least 18 published since 1990.
reflects a very brief search of literature databases; given a few full
days, I'd likely find a lot more by using more sophisticated key words.
Additionally, some of the above will be more concerned with "genetic" fragmentation
and are less relevant to RIM Park Issues. Conservatively, I'd estimate
there have been about 7,500 articles published on ecological fragmentation
effects worldwide since 1990. If you add "urban" into the mix, you
can increase the number of articles by a large factor; ditto for the term
"edge effect". In all cases, the articles note that fragmentation
and decline of forest cover harms nearly every native species.
In my case, finding the right wording and what to ask people for or about was the first hurdle to get over. In general, material dealing with our concerns about increasing the local population, with no other local parks for the newcomers to use as their recreation area, the Cawthra Bush would be, as City staff have said "pounded into the ground" from over use. Finding something right on that issue is hard but that is the nature of scientific papers, find as close to the subject as you can and work from there. Also, many studies on this kind of subject would not likely get the funding they should as it would not support the wild over- development of our farm lands that is going on.
The titles of the studies and papers listed on this Web-page can help as a guide. Here is a general list of key words;
Fragmentation and noise effects - Micro-climate changes - edge effect - Encroachment - Habitat fragmentation - Noise pollution - Effect of construction of roads and like structures - The influence of forest fragmentation and landscape pattern - Human Landscape - Impacts of urbanization on plant and bird communities in forest ecosystems, and Fragmentation Effects on Forest Birds.
More in keeping with how people use a forest - Visitor impact assessment - Visitor monitoring methods and Carrying Capacity.
"Leisure Sciences", "Journal
of Applied Recreation Research" and "Leisure: The Journal of the Canadian
Association for Leisure Studies". Parks Services would have further
documents - The Canadian National Park Service, Parks and Wilderness Society
of Canada, Lakehead University School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and
Tourism and The U.S. National Park Service.
Estimating Day use Social Carrying
Capacity in Yosemite National Park
2). The benefits to the surrounding human community of a forest;
3). The effect of urban development on indicator species;
Studies and papers that show or suggest the increasing the human population and urban development around forested & environmentally significant areas generally leads to its decline and loss of its environmental significance. In most cases that would be the most sensitive of species, such as amphibians or a small threatened species like the Jefferson Salamander.
Amphibians are considered to be a key indicator of forest ecosystem health due to their interaction with water by way of their porous skins. However, they are often hard to find, especially mole salamanders like the Jefferson Salamander. Bird in forests have become the most studied group as can be clearly seen by the number of papers out there, they are a pretty sensitive indicator and as they can easy fly from locations that no longer suites them, react quickly to environmental changes. They also, have fairly large territories that they can easily and quickly survey.
Environment Canada (Ontario Region)
- Canadian Wildlife Service - Wetland Resources
Environment Canada - Species at
Risk - Jefferson Salamander
Royal Ontario Museum and the Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources - Ontario's Species at Risk
A). Birds studies as the indicator species;
Studies or papers that could relate;
Bird disturbance: Improving the
quality and utility of disturbance research.
Land use and avian species diversity
along an urban gradient.
The influence of forest fragmentation
and landscape pattern on American martens.
Separating the noise from the
noise: A finding in support of the "Niche Hypothesis," that birds are influenced
human-induced noise in natural habitats.
Fragmentation Effects on Forest
Birds: Relative Influence of Woodland Cover and Configuration on Landscape
Landscape context and fragmentation
effects on forest birds in southern Ontario.
Nesting success and nest-site
selection by a neotropical migrant in a fragmented landscape.
Independent effects of forest
cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds.
Habitat use by black rat snakes
(Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) in fragmented forests.
Birds and butterflies along an
urban gradient: Surrogate taxa for assessing biodiversity?
There is some 18 pages to this, so only part is noted here. The issue of urban development around a forested area, having a negative impact birds nesting in the forested area, is the central issue regarding the way the City of Mississauga wants to eliminate the low density around the Cawthra Bush.
nesting study in forested hills in the City of Waterloo and rural control
sites in Waterloo Region, 2003.
Urban and suburban land use has been identified as the single largest threat to bird populations in the eastern forests of North America (Rich et al. 2003). Urban and suburban expansion results in the outright loss of forests and, in turn, the birds that reside in them. However, habitat does not have to be lost to have major impacts on the resident breeding birds. Numerous studies have shown that certain portions of the bird community - particularly neotropical migrants - decline or disappear when the landscape enclosing their forests fills up with houses (Kluza et al. 2000; Dawson et al. 2001). All of the studies documenting these changes to bird communities beset by surrounding development occurred long after the advent of development. Few, if any, studies within the scientific literature have traced the response of the forest bird community, especially those aspects relating to demographic parameters (nest success, productivity, parasitism, return rates), through the actual course of development, from beginning to end.
The Canadian Wildlife Service, in partnership with the City of Waterloo, the Environmental Conservation Branch, Environment Canada, and the University of Waterloo, has conducted an ongoing study of nesting Wood Thrushes in and around the City of Waterloo beginning in 1998. One of the study's primary objectives is to assess the impacts of new and ever-increasing levels of urbanization adjacent to a 140-ha forest on Wood Thrushes within the forest. Another objective is to determine the temporal scale in which negative impacts appear, if they appear at all. A third objective is to identify factors contributing to any changes that do occur.
In 2003, for the first time, there are strong and unsettling indications that the Wood Thrush population has "crashed" in the first section of Forested Hills to experience significant levels of adjacent development. From 1998 to 2000, a period that could be considered pre-development, FH1 supported a viable Wood Thrush community that equaled or surpassed the most stringent estimates of our source-sink population model (Fig. 7). Productivity at FH1 in each of these years exceeded that of the control sites. By 2003, the situation was strikingly reversed. FH1 fared worse than the control sites on almost every demographic measure that we recorded. Productivity in FH1 was now so low that the annual recruitment of young into the population could not possibly offset mortality, and the area clearly was a population sink. By contrast, productivity in the controls from 2001 to 2003 was high, especially in 2003 when it easily exceeded the source-sink threshold. Productivity in FH2 also far exceeded the source-sink threshold in the past three years; in fact, the 2003 productivity level in FH2 is the highest recorded in any area of this study.
What then, if not intense predation pressures, has emptied FH1 of many of its Wood Thrushes? One possibility is that Wood Thrushes, for whatever reason(s), have an aversion to residential landscapes and may simply avoid woodlots with a profusion of nearby houses. Several years ago, we speculated that older birds would exhibit a deep attachment to their established territories, compelling them to return regardless of the changes that occurred in the surrounding landscape. However, losses to the original population through natural attrition would not be compensated for by the arrival of new immigrants who would opt instead for less urbanized environs.
Effects of urbanization on the
distribution of area-sensitive forest birds in Prince Georges County, Maryland.
Reproductive success of migratory
birds in habitat sources and sinks.
Impacts of cowbird parastism on
Wood Thrushes and other neotropical migrants in suburban Maryland forests.
Nesting success of Neotropical
migrant songbirds in a highly fragmented landscape.
Extent of double-brooding and
seasonal movement of nesting females in a northern population of Wood Thrushes.
Nest-site selection and nesting
success of Wood Thrushes.
Housing developments in rural
New England: effects on forest birds.
Breeding bird density in woodlots:
effects of depth and buildings at the edges.
Suggestions for calculating nest
Partners in Flight North American
Landbird Conservation Plan.
Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).
Generalized procedures for testing
hypothesis about survival or recovery rates.
Wood thrush population sinks and
implications for the scale of regional conservation strategies.
The following is to show that there is evidence to support that changes in the environment affect migratory bird population dynamics, such as nesting or event visiting a forest. This study does talk about effects to a larger forest, in our case the low density surrounding neighbourhood with its deep lots, supports a larger then normal number of trees and shrubs per-lot then found in many suburban neighbourhoods. The vegetation around the Cawthra Bush would be habitat. That the City zoning for townhouses (for 30 per-acre), and the plan put forward, for 30 townhouses and five free standing houses would significantly reduce the habitat potential that would exist if there was only one home per-lot, in keeping with the character of the surrounding community. The City has zoning the whole area around the Cawthra Bush for the same kind of habitat elimination and in the "Wood Thrush nesting study in forested hills in the City of Waterloo". Urban development around a forest is harmful to its wildlife.
Environmental assessment guideline
for forest habitat of migratory birds
Environmental effects [ a subsection
1. General considerations
4. Cumulative effects
CEAA specifically requires an environmental assessment to consider the cumulative environmental effects of a project. These are effects that are likely to result from the project in combination with other projects or activities that have been or will be carried out. (CEAA ss.16(1)(a)) The cumulative removal of forest habitat for projects or from logging will result in cumulative effects on migratory birds. In many situations, migratory bird populations in forest habitats have already been affected. Some species have threshold population levels below which reproductive capacity and immigration are not able to overcome stresses from adverse environmental effects. Cumulative fragmentation of forest habitat and increased edge effect in developed landscapes can result in significant nest predation, parasitism, and decreased reproductive success. Additionally, the effects of previous or other activities in the landscape should be considered when determining the cumulative effects on forest habitat of migratory birds.
There is particular concern when large expanses of the landscape are logged or slated to be logged (e.g., boreal forest). Cumulatively, the result is a net reduction in overall forest habitat, and the potential exists for significant reductions in bird populations or for eventual losses of whole bird communities associated with that type of habitat.
Forest practices code of British
Columbia: biodiversity guidebook.
Sustainable forests: a Canadian
Canadian Standards Association. 1996. A sustainable forest management system: guidance document. CSA Standard CAN/CSA-Z808-96. Etobicoke, Ontario. 49 pp.
Canadian landbird monitoring strategy.
Migratory birds environmental
Wetlands environmental assessment
Relationship between stand age,
stand structure, and biodiversity in aspen mixed wood forests in Alberta.
Forest management guidelines to
protect native biodiversity in the Fundy National Forest.
Suggested Web-sites & persons to contact;
The Natural Heritage Planning
for Amphibians and their Habitats.
The Metropolitan Conservation Alliance was suggested. They are in the business of helping communities find value in conservation. Their director, Dr. Michael Klemens, a herpetologist, has published on the detrimental effects of development/land conversion on the genetic integrity of Jefferson salamanders.
Hyla Ecological out of Massachusetts has done some research on mole salamanders and forests in urban landscapes.
The Pond, the Forest, and the
City: Spotted Salamander Ecology and Conservation in a Human-Dominated
A good place to try would be -
the Niagara Escarpment Commission, Ontario's Niagara Escarpment (ONE) Monitoring
Program, 232 Guelph St., Georgetown, Ont. L7G 4B1. The following link may
contain useful papers. You would have to search the left hand corner
"Sessions" to view all the titles of papers.
At The Environmental Protection
At Massachusetts Wildlife
5). Is it Smart Growth to significantly increase human population densities so close to a Forested, Wetlands and/or Environmentally
The City of Mississauga by way of its zoning is calling for the elimination of the low density community surrounding the Cawthra Bush. To end an environmental success story. The community that has acted as a buffer from urban development in the rest of the City, protecting one of the few Old-Growth forest in a City with a THREATEN species. Both the developer and City calls it intensification and smart growth but they are in the minority.
What we are saying is that the existing low density is a key element in the success of the Cawthra Bush's survival as an urban Old-Growth ecosystem. Back yards so big people do not need parks and townhouses they want to build will have backyards so small it forces people to the Cawthra Bush for recreation area. Those deep & wide lots have keep the area low density for almost 100 years and the Cawthra Bush is a very significant small forest because of it.
Stephen D. Murphy, B.Sc. (Hons.), Ph.D., writes.
In terms of smart growth, the tendency is to increase human density but there is indeed the question as to where this increase should be. Normally we recommend increased densities away from existing environmentally sensitive areas and into areas already filled with roads or perhaps re-using "greyfields" (abandoned commercial buildings, especially big-box stores).
Basically, the general answer is that increased urbanization tends to fragment habitats - cuts them into pieces that are too small to support within-habitat regeneration, hinders between habitat migration critical to maintain genetic diversity in most species (and the resultant ecosystem functions like nutrient cycling) and leaves them vulnerable to outside influences of weather, exacerbated by people. It is along the "edges" of habitat that problems begin because the abrupt changes between a forest edge and surrounding habitat tend to create rapid differences in temperature, light, and humidity. Most native species are not adapted to this; most invasives are. The result is the invasives replace the natives and, generally, the invasives tend to decrease the species diversity in the habitat as the invasives outcompete natives, reduce native species' reproduction, and generally create local (micro) climate conditions more suited to invasives.
Encroachment and use of remaining fragments by people further exacerbates all this.
The City of Toronto moraine website has material on urbanizing influences, Natural Heritage Systems in Urbanizing Settings. http://www.city.toronto.on.ca/moraine/reports.htm
The above has material that will
you good argument against the "Smart Growth" argument though and using
'precautionary principle', which is a UN agreed upon principle.
Studies or papers that could relate;
Long-term changes in indigenous
vegetation preserved in urban areas.
Response time of wetland biodiversity
to road construction on adjacent lands.
Sustaining the unsustainable?
Golf in urban Singapore.
6). That townhouse subdivisions and their increases hard surfaces
which are drained into sewers leads to a lowering of the water table;
The removal of the natural drainage into the watertable and replacing it with more impervious surface cover, i.e. pavement, is harmful not just to the ecosystem but to humans in the long term.
studies suggest building to no more than 10% impervious surface cover (i.e.
rooftops and pavement) over the land in order to retain high quality function
within watersheds and a naturally occurring drainage pattern via groundwater
flow. should refer to the City of Toronto's Wet Weather Flow report,
which documents the costs of repairing the damager to the City's rivers.
In the long term. Using the Toronto report to validate what Mississauga
needs to face up to. It will cost Toronto billions to clean up their
rivers. The plan Toronto has is long term and has some good suggestions
on what Mississauga needs to avoid doing in order to ensure it doesn't
run into the same problems in future.
Another document of potential interest, "Impacts of Imperious Cover on Aquatic Systems" by Center for Watershed Protection, 2003, which can be ordered from the Centre for Watershed Protection Website at www.cwp.org
The removal of trees and soil
is also significant. http://www.whc.org/documents/SOHR-Urban.pdf
As the City own Official plan called for the protection of the "character of a community" and the City say townhouses should replace single family homes, the idea of somehow including the Cawthra Bush in "character of a community", was worth a try (after all it is a fact). However, it is turned out to like the many scientific papers, touched on it but not directly addressed it.
noted to me that the community has to get involved, as if I didn't know
that. To attend council meetings, sign petitions and include local
businesses that rely on the health of the forest - eg bird-watchers, cottagers,
hikers, photographers, etc. http://kn.fcm.ca/ev.php
Park services deal with the over use of natural areas and much can be found at the beginning in the Internet search section regarding - Visitor impact assessment - Visitor monitoring methods and Carrying Capacity. Try the Canadian National Park Service, Parks and Wilderness Society of Canada and Provincial Parks.
Example - Tourism hurts Banff ecosystem, Study says, Toronto Star, Oct. 8/96. BANFF, Alta. (CP) - Tourism is causing environmental havoc at Banff and the Rocky Mountain park needs rapid protection, a new study warns. Banff National Park the oldest and most famous of Canada's federal parks, needs immediate protection from the 5 million tourists that visit each year, Deputy Prime Minister Sheila Copps said. "If we don't get our act together. this park may not exist in 50 years," said Copps, in releasing the report she commissioned as heritage minister 27 months ago.
The US forest
services site on Urban forestry in the southern U.S. Go to the publications
page and then the bottom of the list to USDA Forest Service Publications.
Looks like some interesting resources, particularly one on Community Forestry
and Urban Growth.
THE RETURN OF THE FOREST: URBANIZATION
AND REFORESTATION IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
Friends of the Farewell - unites
residents of Clarington with an interest in environmental issues.
LandOwner Resource Centre
Conservation Council of New Brunswick
- Low impact forestry
Nature Conservancy of Canada -
Atlantic Region, Nature Trust of NB.
Enviro-Access - An index by Environmental
and Industrial Associations that operate in Canada.
Micromedia ProQuest - Canadian
Environmental Directory Associations and Organizations, Governmental Regulators
and Purchasing Groups, Product and Service Companies, Special Libraries,
and more, or so they say.
Canadian Parks and Recreation
The former Federation of Ontario
Naturalists, now Ontario Nature?
John C. Maerz, Ph.D.
World Wildlife Fund Canada.
This report undertook a regional assessment of species and habitat trends in Canada, examined current pressures on our ecosystem, and assessed Canada's response to current conservation needs in light of its international and domestic commitments to conserve biodiversity.
Other useful items are found in the Environment Canada - Canadian Wildlife Service web-site. http://www.cws-scf.ec.gc.ca/
How to create a sustainable forest
management (SFM) plan
How to create a sustainable forest
management (SFM) plan
A plan based on a long-term (see Clause 3.1) forecast shall be prepared for each Defined Forest Area (DFA) and revised at least every 10 years. The plan for each DFA shall include:
a) a summary of the results of activities for the previous planning period;
b) a statement of values, goals, and indicators;
c) a statement of management strategy;
d) a statement of management objectives for each indicator. Statements shall be quantified and have a predefined acceptable level of variance. A schedule for their achievement shall be provided, including benchmarks that can be audited;
e) current quantitative information for each indicator;
f) a description of the assumptions and analytic methods used for forecasting;
g) a description of the forest management activities to be undertaken;
h) an implementation schedule of sustainable forest management activities;
i) a monitoring procedure; and
j) a demonstration of the links between short-term operational plans and the SFM Plan
Also - Wetlands
environmental assessment guideline
Stephen D. Murphy, B.Sc. (Hons.),
He has done work for Wildlife Habitat Canada's publication on urbanization effect on wildlife - see their website at http://www.whc.org. Go to status reports and see the ones on urban habitats.
In the past he wrote to us (below), about the effects of opening the forest canopy, a method that the City foresters were using as a part of their forest management.
"In eastern Ontario forests, increased fragmentation has caused edge effects to increase in severity. This means that the micro-climate around the forest edge is altered and the interior of the forest also is subjected to environmental conditions that normally would be associated with edge habitat. These edge effects tend to self perpetuate because they allow invasive species to colonize sites, out-compete species that prefer shady, moist, and wind-free habitats, and thereby kill off regeneration of tree seedlings or understorey herbs (for example). This frees up more habitat suitable for the invasives and they advance further into the forest. Simultaneously, the changes in micro-climate and habitat structure indirectly affect organisms such as insects that pollinate plants. My study focused on a beetle that pollinated sharp-lobed hepatica. The larvae of this beetle cannot survive in a dry, sunny area and die when edge effects alter the micro-climate. When this happens, the hepaticas lose their sole pollinator and resort to selfing (inbreeding) that eventually can cause severe mutations and eliminate local populations. The problem ran be serious as hepatica is not as vulnerable as other species that are not as proficient or adapted to selfing or clonal replication; this means other species may be in greater peril. This concept holds for most organisms, especially plants and animals (as opposed to protozoans, for example)."
His selected references;
Disturbance versus edge effects
in sugar-maple-beech forest fragments.
Micro-enviroriment variation within
and among forest edge sites in the eastern United States.
Sociological edge effects: Spatial
distribution of human impact in suburban forest fragments.
Forest fragmentation and alien
plant invasion of central Indiana old-growth forests.
Predicting the impacts of edge
effects in fragmented habitats.
The effects of forest fragmentation
on woodland tree biotas in southern Ontario.
Edge effects and conservation
of biotic diversity.
Changes in wildlife communities
Edge versus age effects in the
development of a beech-maple forest.
Estimating habitat isolation in
Connectivity is a vital element
of landscape structure.
A case study of woodland continuity
and change in the American midwest.
The natural heritage of southern
Ontario's settled landscapes. A review of conservation and restoration
ecology for land-use and landscape planning.
Vegetation dynamics of the forest
edge - trends in space and successional time.
Edge-effects in-fragmented forests:
implications for conservation.
Agroecosystem health: Is plant
diversity a useful indicator?
Pollen limitation in a northern
population of Hepatica acutiloba.
Integrity standards for Natural
Heritage Areas in Ontario.
Distribution and status of the
vascular plants of central region.
Other studies or papers that could relate;
Predation rate on artificial nests
increases with human housing density in suburban habitats.
Effects of residential development
on forest dwelling neotropical migrant songbirds
Landscape context and fragmentation
effects on forest birds in southern Ontario
Housing developments in rural
New England: effects on forest birds
Impacts of urbanization on plant
and bird communities in forest ecosystems.
Ecospatial outcomes of neoliberal
planning: habitat management in Auckland Region, New Zealand. By
SOCIOLOGICAL EDGE EFFECTS - SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION
OF HUMAN IMPACT IN SUBURBAN FOREST FRAGMENTS
Distribution pattern of the flora
in a peri-urban forest: an effect of the city-forest ecotone.
Review of ecological effects of
roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities.
Ecological consequences of habitat
fragmentation: Implications for landscape architecture and planning.
Measuring urban habitat fragmentation:
an example from the Black Country, UK.
Conservation and management of
forest patches and corridors in suburban landscapes.
Red-listed forest bird species
in an urban environment - assessment of green space corridors.
Urban ecological systems: Linking
terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan
The application of ecological
principles to urban and urbanizing landscapes.
Adopting a modern ecological view
of the metropolitan landscape: the case of a greenspace system for the
New York City region.
ENVIRONMENTAL-EFFECTS OF FOREST
SOIL-INVERTEBRATE AND FUNGAL DENSITIES IN OAK STANDS ALONG AN URBAN-RURAL
Urban ecology in Ontario, Canada:
Moving beyond the limits of city and ideology.
Natural regeneration of trees
in urban woodlands.
LONG-TERM HUMAN DISTURBANCE OF
AN URBAN PARK FOREST, NEW-YORK-CITY
Importance of backyard habitat
in a comprehensive biodiversity conservation strategy: A connectivity analysis
of urban green spaces.
Urban plant ecology patterns and
processes: a case study of the flora of the City of Plymouth, Devon, UK.
Long-term changes in indigenous
vegetation preserved in urban areas
Conservation and management of
forest patches and corridors in suburban landscapes.
The potential role of natural
colonisation as a design tool for urban forestry - a pilot study.
Urban land resources and urban
planting - case studies from Denmark.
Urban forest landscapes in the
UK - progressing the social agenda.
Importance of biological monitoring
being used by development proposals in the landscape.
Using long-term monitoring to
understand how adjacent land development affects natural areas: An
example from Saguaro National Park, Arizona (USA)
The Status of Wildlife Habitats
in Canada's Urban Landscapes
How Much Habitat is Enough?
A Framework for Conceptualizing
Human Effects on Landscapes and Its Relevance to Management and Research
Conservation Where People Live
Biological Consequences of Ecosystem
Fragmentation: A Review.
Why we should do something.
Fragmented, isolated woodlots fail to meet the needs of most species -
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